Smoking has become a habit for some people. Smoking habits cause many medical disorders such as lung cancer, oral cancer, and vascular disease. One of the vascular diseases that only affects smokers is called Buerger disease.
What is Buerger disease?
Buerger Disease or in the medical world called Tromboangiitis Obliterans is a disease of blood vessels (arteries & veins) that are specific to attack the limbs and rarely in the tools inside. The disorder is inflammation and blockage by the thrombus in the affected area, especially small and medium vessels in the legs and hands. The blockage and inflammation that occurs cause the ends of the limbs to be deprived of oxygen, die, then rot.
Almost 100% of cases Buerger’s Disease attacks the smoker at the age young adults. The disease is found in Korea, Japan, Indonesia, India, and other countries in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia. Deaths caused by Buerger’s disease are rare, but in patients with this disease who continue to smoke, 43% of sufferers have to do one or more of the amputation on 6-7 years later.
Why does Buerger disease only attack smokers?
A cigarette contains approximately 4000 substances, and 200 of them are harmful to health. The main toxins in cigarettes are nicotine, carbon monoxide, and tar. There are many different types of cigarettes on the market that is smoking white, clove cigarettes, and smoking cigars. Cigarettes contain 14 – 15 mg 5 mg of tar and nicotine, while cigarettes contain about 20 mg of tar and 4 – 5 mg of nicotine. This indicates that the content of tar and nicotine in cigarettes is higher than cigarettes. The content of tar and nicotine on the highest rated cigars because of its size. How do these three substances cause Buerger’s Disease?
See the explanation below.
Nicotine can damage the nerves, interfere with brain function and heart. Nicotine can also interfere with the sympathetic nervous system by stimulating adrenaline release, increasing the frequency of heart rate, blood pressure, and heart oxygen demand, as well as causing heart rhythm disturbances. In blood vessels, nicotine serves to call platelet blood cells and causes platelet attachment to the blood vessel wall. This pile triggers inflammation so that more garbage builds up in the walls of blood vessels that result in narrowing. Narrowing of blood vessels at the tip of the body (fingers and toes) due to nicotine will increase the risk of atherosclerosis, this narrowing causes the flow is inhibited so that the less blood will die and rot.
- Carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon monoxide (CO) gas has a strong tendency to bind to hemoglobin in erythrocytes. Hemoglobin should bind to oxygen to be distributed throughout the body. In fact, CO2 levels of CO2 in smokers are less than 1%, while in smokers are 4-15%. Automatically in smokers, CO will decrease oxygen delivery to whole body tissues. Carbon monoxide also interferes with the release of oxygen, accelerates atherosclerosis, and increases blood viscosity, making it easier for blood clots. This combination causes the flow to be blocked toward the ends of the body so that the part quickly decomposes due to lack of oxygen.
Tar is a substantial component of cigarette smoke that is carcinogenic. When smoking cigarettes, tar enters the oral cavity in the form of a solid vapor. Tar will become solid and form a brown precipitate on the tooth surface, respiratory tract, and lungs. This precipitation varies between 3 – 40 mg per cigarette. Tar is also believed to cause damaged blood vessel walls that can lead to a pile of garbage which then clogs up.
What are the symptoms of Buerger’s disease?
- The first symptoms are claudication or pain on walking.
- Initial phase shows redness, slight pains, and palpable veins as hardened channels of several millimeters to centimeters below the skin. This disorder often appears in several places on the limb and lasts for several weeks. After that, there were traces of bumps.
- At a more severe blockage, the pain is more severe and lasts longer, even pain at rest.
- Patients often experience Raynaud’s phenomenon, a condition in which the tip of the body (fingers, heels, hands, feet) becomes white when exposed to cold temperatures.
- Cold, numb, tingling, burning sensation on the tips of your toes or fingers.
- Muscle cramps, usually on the soles of the feet or legs.
- Bluish on the fingers and toes that then darken and decay.
- There is no pulse in the less flow of blood.
- Muscles become atrophy or shrink.
- Bone has osteoporosis and if the decay occurs then bone damage that develops into osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone)
Well, after seeing the explanation above, we know that smoking is not a good habit. So, STOP SMOKING!